Marco Matteucci, Simon Tylsgaard Larsen, Alessandro Garau, Simone Tanzi, and Rafael Taboryski, Polymer multilevel lab-on-chip systems for electrochemical sensing, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 31, 06F904-1-6 (November 2013).

The authors present a scheme intended for production of large quantities of lab on chip systems by means of Si dry etching, electroplating, injection molding, and pressure-assisted thermal bonding. This scheme allows for the fabrication of large numbers of samples having a combination of structures with depths as small as tens of nanometers and as big as hundreds of microns on the same polymer chip. The authors also describe in detail the fabrication procedure of polymer substrates with embedded Au and pedot:tosylate electrodes for electrochemical applications. The electrode fabrication process is simple and fit for integration in a production scheme. The electrode–substrates are then bonded to injection molded counterparts to be used for electrochemical applications. A dimensional and functional characterization of the electrodes is also presented here.

Rodolphe Marie, Jonas N. Pedersen, David L. V. Bauer, Kristian H. Rasmussen, Mohammed Yusuf, Emanuela Volpi, Henrik Flyvbjerg, Anders Kristensen, and Kalim U. Mir, Integrated view of genome structure and sequence of a single DNA molecule in a nanofluidic device, PNAS, (March 2013).

We show how a bird’s-eye view of genomic structure can be obtained at ∼1-kb resolution from long (∼2 Mb) DNA molecules extracted from whole chromosomes in a nanofluidic laboratory-on-a-chip. We use an improved single-molecule denaturation mapping approach to detect repetitive elements and known as well as unique structural variation. Following its mapping, a molecule of interest was rescued from the chip; amplified and localized to a chromosome by FISH; and interrogated down to 1-bp resolution with a commercial sequencer, thereby reconciling haplotype-phased chromosome substructure with sequence.

Peter Friis Østergaard, Marco Matteucci, Walter Reisner, and Rafael Taboryski, DNA Barcoding via Counterstaining with AT/GC Sensitive Ligands in Injection-Molded All-Polymer Nanochannel Devices, Analyst, 138(4):1249-55 (February 2013).

Nanochannel technology, coupled with a suitable DNA labeling chemistry, is a powerful approach for performing high-throughput single-molecule mapping of genomes. Yet so far nanochannel technology has remained inaccessible to the broader research community due to high fabrication cost and/or requirement of specialized facilities/skill-sets. In this article we show that nanochannel-based mapping can be performed in all polymer chips fabricated via injection molding: a fabrication process so inexpensive that the devices can be considered disposable. Fluorescent intensity variations can be obtained from molecules extended in the polymer nanochannels via chemical counterstaining against YOYO-1. In particular, we demonstrate that the counterstaining induced fluorescent intensity variations to a large degree appear to be proportional to the theoretically computed sequence-maps of both local AT and GC variation along DNA sequences.

M. Matteucci, T. L. Christiansena, S. Tanzia, P. F. Østergaard, and R. Taboryskia, Fabrication and characterization of injection molded multi level nano and microfluidic systems, Microelectronic engineering, (February 2013).

We here present a method for fabrication of multi-level all-polymer chips by means of silicon dry etching, electroplating and injection molding. This method was used for successful fabrication of microfluidic chips for applications in the fields of electrochemistry, cell trapping and DNA elongation. These chips incorporate channel depths in the range between 100 nm and 100 lm and depth to width aspect ratios between 1/200 and 2. Optimization of the sealing process of all-polymer COC microfluidic chips by means of thermal bonding is also presented. The latter includes comparing the bonding strength of UV-treated foils and presentation of a simple model for estimating the delamination pressure. With UV surface treatments, foils of 100 lm thickness were found to withstand pressures up to 9 atm in Ø4 mm cylindrical inlets when thermally bonded to micropatterned substrates of 2 mm thickness.


M. Calaon, H. N. Hansen, G. Tosello, J. Garnaes, J. Nørregaard, W. Li, A capability study of micro moulding for nano fluidic system manufacture, Proceedings of the 13th euspen International Conference – Berlin – May 2013.

Abstract: With the present paper the authors analysed process capability of ultra-precision moulding used for producing nano crosses with the same critical channels dimensions of a nano fluidic system for optical mapping of genomic length DNA. The process variation focused on product tolerances is quantified through AFM measurements. Uncertainty assessment of measurements on polymer objects is described and quality control results of sub-micro injection moulded crosses are shown in respect of the tolerance range specified by the end user as limit value for functional design.

M. Calaon, G. Tosello, P.T. Tang, J. Nørregaard, J. Garnaes, W. Li and H.N. Hansen, Injection moulding of large structured area with functional geometries in the sub-100 nanometer meter range, Proceedings of the Polymer Processing Society 29th Annual Meeting ~ PPS-29 ~ July 15-19, 2013, Nuremberg (Germany).

Abstract: Patterning large areas with micro-to-nanostructured geometries yields different surfaces functionalities. In this research a distributed nano-semi-sphere pattern over a large area of 30x80mm2 and a series of deterministic nanostructures such as nanochannels on a 100 mm diameter template were fabricated. The process to create semi-spheres master geometries to pattern the nickel mold used for polymer replication is based on anodization of aluminum. The deterministic geometries were fabricated on a 100 mm diameter silicon wafer. The channels defined by e-beam were etched by selective reactive ion etching. The nickel stamper used for injection molding was fabricated by subsequent nickel electroplating. The capability of the injection molding process to replicate both functional patterned surfaces and deterministic geometries into cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) Topas 6013 was investigated. Process optimization in terms of melt temperature, mold temperature, packing time and pressure, was performed. Replication quality assessment was performed using atomic force microscopy comparing critical dimensions in the nickel stampers with corresponding polymer nano-features dimensions. Replication of both vertical (height/depth) and lateral (width) dimensions was quantified for both distributed and deterministic nano structures.

M. Calaon, G. Tosello, H. N. Hansen, J. Nørregaard, Influence of process parameters on edge replication quality of lab-on-a-chip micro fluidic systems gepmetries, Antec 2013, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. April 22-24, 2013.

G. Toselloa, M. Calaona, P.T. Tangb, C. Ravnb, H.N. Hansena, Process chain for nano surface texturing of metal and polymer micro structures, HARMNST, Berlin 2013, 10th International Workshop on High Aspect Ratio Micro and Nano System Technology, 21 – 24 April, Berlin.

Anders Kristensen, Rodolphe Marie, Jonas N. Pedersen, Christopher J. Lüscher, Kristian H. Rasmussen, Lasse H. Thamdrup, Anil H. Thilsted, Johan Eriksen, and Henrik Flyvbjerg, Nanofluidic chips for DNA detection, Invited paper at SPIE Photonics West 2013, San Francisco, CA USA, February 2-7, 2013.